Category: Semantics

  • Download E-books Pseudogapping and Ellipsis (Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics (Paperback)) PDF

    By Kirsten Gengel

    This publication is all approximately ellipsis in typical language - the phenomena during which phrases and words pass lacking within the linguistic sign, yet are nonethe much less interpreted through the receiver, eg within the following sentence, the second one example of read is known even if it really is spoken Claire read a publication and Heather [read] a magazine. modern theoretical linguistics has defined a number of varieties of ellipsis in English, and varied syntactic mechanisms were proposed which account for his or her constructions.

    Kirsten Gengel investigates pseudogapping, which, she proposes, is one number of ellipsis. on the middle of her dialogue lies the interplay among focus and deletion. Her research - which attracts on new examine in Icelandic, Norwegian, Danish, and Dutch, in addition to info from Portuguese, French, and English - presents a unique method of not just this actual type of ellipsis yet to the derivation of ellipsis often, and has the possibility of unifying a number of elliptical phenomena in generative grammar.
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  • Download E-books The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language (P.S.) PDF

    By Steven Pinker

    In this vintage, the world's professional on language and brain lucidly explains every thing you usually desired to find out about language: the way it works, how little ones study it, the way it alterations, how the mind computes it, and the way it developed. With deft use of examples of humor and wordplay, Steven Pinker weaves our significant wisdom of language right into a compelling tale: language is a human intuition, stressed out into our brains by way of evolution. The Language Instinct bought the William James e-book Prize from the yankee mental organization and the general public curiosity Award from the Linguistics Society of the US. This variation comprises an replace on advances within the technology of language because The Language Instinct was once first published.

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  • Download E-books Lexical Strata in English: Morphological Causes, Phonological Effects (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics) PDF

    By Heinz J. Giegerich

    In Lexical Strata in English, Heinz Giegerich investigates the way alternations within the sound styles of phrases engage with the morphological tactics of the language. Drawing examples from English and German, he uncovers and spells out intimately the rules of 'lexical morphology and phonology', a thought that has lately turn into more and more influential in linguistics. Giegerich queries a number of the assumptions made in that concept, overturning a few and placing others on a principled footing. What emerges is a brand new, officially coherent and hugely restricted conception of the lexicon - the idea of 'base-driven' stratification - which predicts the variety of lexical strata from the variety of base-category differences famous within the morphology of the language. ultimately, he bargains new debts of a few significant phenomena within the phonology of English (including vowel 'reduction', [r]-sandhi and syllabification), which either aid and are uniquely facilitated through this new conception.
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  • Download E-books Locality in WH Quantification: Questions and Relative Clauses in Hindi (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy) PDF

    Locality in WH Quantification argues that Logical shape, the extent that mediates among syntax and semantics, is derived from S-structure through neighborhood circulation. the first facts for the declare of locality at LF is drawn from Hindi yet English info is utilized in discussing the semantics of questions and relative clauses. The publication takes a cross-linguistic standpoint displaying how the Hindi and English evidence should be dropped at endure at the idea of common grammar.
    There are numerous phenomena in general suggestion to contain long-distance dependencies at LF, resembling scope marking, long-distance checklist solutions and correlatives. during this ebook they're dealt with by way of explicating novel varieties of neighborhood relationships that interrogative and relative clauses can input. A extra articulated semantics is proven resulting in a less complicated syntax.
    between different concerns addressed is the swap from uniqueness/maximality results in unmarried wh structures to checklist readings in a number of wh buildings. those results are captured through adapting the remedy of wh expressions as quantifying over services to the situations of a number of wh questions and correlatives. checklist readings because of useful dependencies are systematically uncommon from those who are in accordance with plurality.
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  • Download E-books Case and Grammatical Relations Across Languages: Case, Semantic Roles, and Grammatical Relations: A comprehensive bibliography (Case and Grammatical Relations Across Languages, Vol 1) PDF

    By Petra Campe

    This is often the 1st of a sequence of 6 books facing case phenomena in several languages, either Indo- and non-Indo-European, as a result of paintings by means of a staff of 20 experts on the collage of Leuven. it's the first time this kind of large-scale research into case has been undertaken, and a extraordinary characteristic of the venture is using desktop corpora of genuine material.
    This bibliography provides the numerous dimensions thinking about study into case and case-related phenomena. This contains not just morphological case markers, but in addition the crossconstituent (semantic and grammatical) family expressed through morphological case or by means of its numerous opposite numbers; morpho-syntactic strategies similar to transitivity and passivization; and pragmatic and textual concerns. moreover, the bibliography displays the results of case examine for different disciplines, reminiscent of international language instructing and synthetic intelligence.
    More than 6000 guides are indexed. an intensive topic Index presents quick access to all of the subject matters and significant innovations coated. A Language Index and a advisor to Languages/Language households finish the book.
    The different volumes within the sequence contain The Dative (2 vols), The Genitive, The Nominative and Accusative, and Non-nuclear Cases.
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  • Download E-books Mapping English Metaphor Through Time PDF

    This quantity deals an empirical and diachronic research of the principles and nature of metaphor in English. Metaphor is without doubt one of the scorching issues in present-day linguistics, with a massive diversity of study concentrating on the systematic connections among diversified techniques similar to warmth and anger (fuming, inflamed), sight and knowing (clear, see), or our bodies and panorama (hill-foot, river-mouth). till lately, the inability of a entire info resource made it tricky to acquire an outline of this phenomenon in any language, yet this replaced with the of completion in 2009 of The ancient word list of English, the single historic word list ever produced for any language. Chapters during this quantity use this targeted source as a foundation for case reviews of semantic domain names together with Animals, color, demise, worry, foodstuff, interpreting, and robbery, offering an important leap forward within the data-driven realizing of metaphor.
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  • Download E-books Parts of a Whole: Distributivity as a Bridge Between Aspect and Measurement (Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics) PDF

    This publication makes use of mathematical versions of language to give an explanation for why there are particular gaps in language: issues that we would count on as a way to say yet cannot. for example, why will we say I ran for 5 mins yet no longer *I ran to the shop for 5 mins? Why is 5 kilos of books appropriate, yet *five kilos of booklet now not appropriate? What prevents us from announcing *sixty levels of water to specific the temperature of the water in a swimming pool whilst sixty inches of water can show its intensity? And why will we now not say *all the ants in my kitchen are a number of? the restrictions on those buildings contain options which are ordinarily studied individually: point, plural and mass reference, size, and distributivity. during this booklet, Lucas Champollion offers a unified viewpoint on those domain names, connects them officially in the framework of algebraic semantics and mereology, and makes use of this connection to move insights throughout unrelated our bodies of literature and formulate a unmarried constraint that explains all the judgments above.
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  • Download E-books Natural Language Processing for Social Media (Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies) PDF

    By Atefeh Farzindar

    This publication provides the state of the art in study and empirical reports within the box of typical Language Processing (NLP) for the semantic research of social media facts. over the last few years, on-line social networking websites have revolutionized the best way we speak with participants, teams and groups, and changed daily practices. The exceptional quantity and diversity of user-generated content material and the person interplay community represent new possibilities for realizing social habit and development socially clever systems.

    a lot examine paintings on social networks and the mining of the social net is predicated on graph idea. that's apt simply because a social constitution is made of a suite of social actors and a suite of the dyadic ties among those actors. We think that the graph-mining equipment for constitution, info diffusion or impression unfold in social networks must mixed with the content material research of social media. this gives the chance for brand spanking new functions that use the data publicly on hand because of social interactions.

    The meant viewers of this e-book is researchers who're drawn to constructing instruments and functions for computerized research of social media texts. We imagine that the readers have easy wisdom within the region of ordinary language processing and computing device studying. This e-book may help the readers greater comprehend computational linguistics and social media research, particularly text-mining recommendations and NLP functions (such as summarization, localization detection, sentiment and emotion research, subject detection and laptop translation) designed in particular for social media texts.
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  • Download E-books Reference without Referents PDF

    By R. M. Sainsbury

    Reference is a critical subject in philosophy of language, and has been the focus of debate approximately how language pertains to the realm. R. M. Sainsbury units out a brand new method of the idea that, which can provide to bring to a standstill a few long-standing debates in semantic concept.

    There is a unmarried type of referring expressions, all of which deserve primarily a similar form of semantic remedy. incorporated during this type are either singular and plural referring expressions ("Aristotle", "The Pleiades"), complicated and non-complex referring expressions ("The President of the us in 1970", "Nixon"), and empty and non-empty referring expressions ("Vulcan", "Neptune"). Referring expressions are to be defined semantically by means of a reference situation, instead of by means of being linked to a referent. In arguing for those theses, Sainsbury's e-book gives you to finish the fruitless oscillation among Millian and descriptivist perspectives. Millian perspectives insist that each identify has a referent, and locate it difficult to provide an exceptional account of names which seem to not have referents, or a minimum of usually are not identified to take action, like ones brought via mistakes ("Vulcan"), ones the place it really is disputed whether or not they have a bearer ("Patanjali") and ones utilized in fiction. Descriptivist theories require that every identify be linked to a few physique of data. those theories fly within the face of the actual fact names are helpful accurately simply because there's usually no overlap of knowledge between audio system and hearers. the choice place for which the e-book argues is firmly non-descriptivist, notwithstanding it additionally doesn't require a referent. a wider view could be taken of which expressions are referring expressions: not only names and pronouns used demonstratively, but in addition a few complicated expressions and a few anaphoric makes use of of pronouns.

    Sainsbury's technique brings reference into line with fact: not anyone might imagine semantic idea should still affiliate a sentence with a fact worth, however it is often held semantic idea should still affiliate a sentence with a fact , a situation which an arbitrary nation of the area must fulfill so one can make the sentence precise. the correct analogy is semantic idea may still affiliate a referring expression with a reference situation, a which an arbitrary item must fulfill that allows you to be the expression's referent.

    Lucid and obtainable, and written with no less than technicality, Sainsbury's publication additionally encompasses a priceless old survey. will probably be of curiosity to these operating in good judgment, brain, and metaphysics in addition to crucial examining for philosophers of language.
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